SQL Database: A Detailed Guide on How it Works + Top 5 Database Solutions (2022)

SQL has become a critical tool for data professionals. It is one of the most important languages in the field of data analytics and sciences. Every minute, millions of data points are generated, yet the raw data itself has no narrative to offer. All of this data is eventually saved in databases, and experts can extract it using SQL for additional research. In this article, you can read about how SQL works, and what are top 5 database solutions. 

How Does SQL Work?

When you start executing your commands the RDBMS system decides how it can carry out your request. And the SQL engine is given the task of decoding the command. 

This method consists of several elements. These components are:

  1. SQL Query Engine
  2. Query Dispatcher
  3. Classic Query Engine
  4. Optimization Engines

Logical files cannot be handled by a SQL query engine, only by a traditional query engine.

SQL Commands

CREATE, INSERT, DROP, UPDATE, DELETE and SELECT are some basic primary commands that are used for interactional purposes.

What is RDBMS?

RDBMS can be also called relational database management systems. All contemporary database systems, including MS SQL Server, IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access, are built on the RDBMS platform.

DBMS runs on the relational model that is developed by E. F. Codd is known as a relational database management system (RDBMS).

What is a Table?

An RDBMS stores the data in database objects known as tables.

A collection of data entries that are connected is a table with a lot of rows and columns. In a relational database, a table is the most typical and basic type of data storage.

What is a Field?

Each table is divided into smaller objects referred to as fields. Name, Age, Address, Id, and salary is mentioned in the customer’s table. 

Specific data is stacked in each entry in the table of a field in a table column. 

What is a NULL Value?

A null value in a field can be termed as a no value because it denotes a blank space in a table. 

It is very important to understand how to differentiate between a null value and a zero. Because null values in a field determine a space. 

A Few SQL Constraints You Must Know

The restrictions placed on a table’s data columns are known as constraints. These are employed to restrict the kinds of data that can be entered into tables. It is necessary to make sure the data is accurate and dependable. 

You can apply a constraint to the column or a table. Table level constraints apply to the entire table and column levels apply to a particular column. 

Data Integrity 

You can say that each RDBMS has the given categories of data integrity:  

  1. No rows in a table are duplicated, which is known as entity integrity.
  2. By limiting the type, the format, or the range of values, domain integrity enforces proper entries for the specified column.
  3. The integrity that stops the deletion of rows that are about records is called referential integrity. 
  4. The entity, domain, and referential integrity do not apply to some business rules that are enforced by user-defined integrity.

Image Credit: Unsplash 

Top 5 Database Solutions to Acknowledge

  1. MySQL

Since its launch, MySQL has gained a lot of recognition from both the business and general public thanks to its enterprise-grade capabilities, free, flexible (GPL) community license, and improved commercial license. Among the open-source databases, MySQL places a greater emphasis on maturity, robustness, and stability than PostgreSQL does on innovation and cutting-edge capabilities.

One of the most well-liked and commonly used SQL databases nowadays is MySQL. In addition, it is one of the databases that web applications use the most. MySQL is used by some of the biggest Web-scale apps in the world (like Facebook and Uber).

  1. DoltHub

One of the best SQL databases in the market, users can use it to fork, branch, clone, merge, push, and pull just like a repository. You can connect with Dolt just like any other MySQL database, to run queries or update data. 

All the commands that work for Git SQL also work for Dolt SQL databases. We have built DoltHub where you can share dolt databases. At DoltHub, they host public data for free. 

  1. PostgreSQL 

The database was once known as POSTGRES. Michael was given the Turing award to applaud his contribution to PostgreSQL.

If your business works with a lot of data then PostgreSQL is for you. It is also utilized by a lot of gaming apps, automation tools, and domain registrations. 

  1. IBM DB2 

DB2 LUW for Windows, Linux, and Unix was also available from IBM. The most recent version, DB2 11.5 accelerates query execution.

Although the relational architecture is supported by several mobile app databases, those databases have expanded dramatically in recent years. It now supports non-relational forms like JSON and XML as well as object-relational features.

  1. Elasticsearch

Shay Banon first released Elasticsearch, an open-source full-text search engine, in 2010. It is based on Lucene. It is a distributed, multi-tenant full-text search engine with a REST API.

Through automatic sharing and a REST API, it offers horizontal scaling. Additionally, it allows structured and schema-less data (JSON), which is particularly well suited for data analysis from monitoring or logging.


Any specialist in data analytics or data science should be proficient with SQL. In reality, this is a subject that comes up quite frequently in data analytics interviews. Knowing what SQL is, how it functions, and what it is used for will help you advance in a world where data is the new oil.

Also Read: What Is Python Used For?

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